Definition of Canon in Fiction and Literature


canonical literature

By studying canonical works of the past, we gain a new appreciation for them from a modern perspective. For instance, Walt Whitman's epic poem "Song of Myself" is now viewed as a seminal work of gay literature. During Whitman's lifetime, it was not necessarily read within that context. Canonical English Literature show list info Literature every English major should read: some of the highlights up through the modernist era, delving briefly into early postmodernism. Nov 07,  · Canonical definition, pertaining to, established by, or conforming to a canon or canons. See more.

What is canonical literature? -

The Western canon is the body of high culture literature, music, philosophy, and works of art that is highly valued in the West : works that have achieved the status of classics. However, not all these works originate in the Western world, and such works are also valued throughout the world. It is "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".

The Biblea product of ancient Jewish culture, from the Levantcanonical literature, in Western Asiahas been a major force in shaping Western cultureand "has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, canonical literature, literature, and art". The canon of books has been fairly stable, although it has expanded to canonical literature more women and racial minorities, while the canons of music and the visual arts have greatly expanded to cover the Middle Agesand subsequent centuries once largely overlooked.

But some examples of newer media such as cinema canonical literature attained a precarious position in the canon. Also during the twentieth century there has been a growing interest in the West, as well as globally, in major artistic works of the cultures of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South America, including the former canonical literature of European nations.

A classic is a book, or any other work of art, accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being canonical literature in a list of great booksor through a reader's personal opinion.

Although the term is often associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature, music and art, etc. Historically, the word refers to a work of a very high standard produced in order to obtain membership of a Guild or Academy. The first writer to use the term "classic" was Aulus Gelliusa 2nd-century Roman writer who, in the miscellany Noctes Atticae 19, canonical literature, 8, 15refers to a writer as a canonical literature scriptor, non proletarius "A distinguished, not a commonplace writer".

Moreover, early Christian Church Fathers used canon to rank the authoritative texts of the New Testamentpreserving them, canonical literature, given the expense of vellum and papyrus and mechanical book reproduction, thus, being comprehended in a canon ensured a book's preservation as the best way to retain information about a civilization.

In the ancient world, at the Alexandrian Libraryscholars coined the Greek term Hoi enkrithentes "the admitted", "the included" to identify the writers in the canon, canonical literature. With regard to books, what makes a book "classic" has concerned various authors, from Mark Twain to Italo Calvinoand questions such as "Why Read the Classics? The terms canonical literature book" and Western canon are closely related concepts, but are not necessarily synonymous.

A "canon" is a list of books considered to be "essential", and it can be published as a collection such as Great Books of the Western WorldModern LibraryEveryman's Libraryor Penguin Classicspresented as a list with an academic's imprimatur such as Harold Bloom 's, [5] or be the official reading list of a university.

In addition the following are some of the important works from other cultures that have influenced the West: Gilgamesh c. The American literary critic Harold Bloom has divided the body of Western Literature into four ages: [11].

John Erskine of Columbia Universitywhich proposed to improve the higher education system by returning it to the western liberal arts tradition of broad cross-disciplinary learning. The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought. The essential component of such programs is a high degree of engagement with primary texts, canonical literature, called the Great Books, canonical literature.

The curricula of Great Books programs often follow a canon of texts considered more or less essential to a student's education, such as Plato's Republiccanonical literature, or Dante's Divine Comedy.

Such programs often focus exclusively on Western culture. Their employment of primary texts dictates an interdisciplinary approach, canonical literature most of the Great Books do not fall neatly under the prerogative of a single contemporary academic discipline.

Great Books programs often include designated discussion groups as well as lectures, canonical literature, and have small class sizes. In general students in such programs receive an abnormally high degree of attention from their professors, as part of the overall canonical literature of fostering a community of learning. Over institutions of higher learning, mostly in the United States, offer some version of a Great Books Program as an option for students.

For much of the 20th century, the Modern Library provided a larger convenient list of the Western canon, i, canonical literature. The list numbered more than items by the s, by authors from Aristotle to Albert Camus, canonical literature, and has continued to grow.

When in the s the concept of the Western canon was vehemently condemned, just as earlier Modern Library lists had been criticized as "too American," Modern Library responded by preparing new lists of " Best Novels" and " Best Nonfiction" compiled by famous writers, and later compiled lists nominated by book purchasers and readers. There has been an ongoing debate, especially in the US, over the nature and status of the canon since at least the s, much of which is rooted in critical theoryfeminismcritical race theoryand Marxism.

American philosopher Jay Stevenson argues:. Classicist Bernard Knox made direct reference to this topic when he delivered his Jefferson Lecture the U. Some intellectuals have championed a "high conservative modernism" that insists that universal truths exist, canonical literature, and have opposed approaches that deny the existence of universal truths. Bloom further comments: "But one thing is certain: wherever the Great Books make up canonical literature central part canonical literature the curriculum, the students are canonical literature and canonical literature. There is a certain canonical literature in this [i.

Precisely by inculcating a critical attitude, the "canon" served to demythologize the conventional pieties of the American bourgeoisie and provided the student with a perspective from which to critically analyze American culture and institutions.

Ironically, canonical literature, the same tradition is now regarded as oppressive. The texts once served an unmasking function; now we are told that it is the texts which must be unmasked. One of the main objections to a canon of literature is the question of authority; who should have the power to determine what works are worth reading? Searle's rebuttal suggests that "one obvious difficulty with it [i.

Charles Altieriof the University of California, canonical literature, Berkeleystates that canons are "an institutional form for exposing people to a range of idealized attitudes. Compton argues that canons are always communal in nature; that there are canonical literature canons for, canonical literature, say a literature survey class, or an English department reading list, but there is no such thing as one absolute canon of literature, canonical literature.

Instead, there are many conflicting canons. He regards Bloom's "Western Canon" as a personal canon only. The process of defining the boundaries of the canon is endless. The philosopher John Searle has said, "In my experience there never was, in fact, a fixed 'canon'; there was rather a certain set of tentative judgments about what had importance and quality.

Such judgments are always subject to revision, and in fact they were constantly being revised. This program, developed in the middle third of the 20th century, grew out of the curriculum at the University of Chicago.

University president Robert Maynard Hutchins and his collaborator Mortimer Adler developed a program that offered reading lists, books, and organizational strategies for reading clubs to the general public. Eliotcanonical literature, with the Harvard Classicsa volume anthology of classic works from world literature. Eliot's view was the same as that of Scottish philosopher and historian Thomas Carlyle : "The true University of these days is a Collection of Books".

The canon of Renaissance English poetry of the 16th and early 17th century has always been in some form of flux and towards the end of the 20th century the established canon was criticized, especially by those who wished to expand it to include, for example, more women writers.

However, poet John Dryden condemned aspects of the canonical literature poets in his criticism. In the 18th century Metaphysical poetry fell into further disrepute, [29] while the interest in Elizabethan poetry was rekindled through the scholarship of Thomas Warton and others. However, the canon of Renaissance poetry was formed in the Victorian period with anthologies like Palgrave's Golden Treasury. In the twentieth century T, canonical literature. Eliot and Yvor Winters were two literary critics who were especially concerned with revising the canon of renaissance English literature.

During the course of the s, Eliot did much to establish the importance of canonical literature metaphysical school, canonical literature, both through his critical writing and by applying their method in his own work.

However, by A. Alvarez was commenting that "it may perhaps be a little late in the day to canonical literature writing about the Metaphysicals. The great vogue for Donne passed with the passing of the Anglo-American experimental movement in modern poetry. The American critic Yvor Winters suggested in an alternative canon of Elizabethan poetry[33] which would exclude the famous representatives of the Petrarchan school of poetry, canonical literature, represented by Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser.

Winters claimed that the Native or Plain Style anti-Petrarchan movement had been undervalued and argued that George Gascoigne — "deserves to be ranked […] among the six or seven greatest lyric poets of the century, and perhaps higher". Towards the end of the 20th century the established canon was increasingly under fire.

In the twentieth century there was a general reassessment of the literary canonincluding women's writingpost-colonial literaturesgay and lesbian literaturewriting by people of colour, working people's writing, and the cultural productions of historically marginalized groups. This reassessment has resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered "literature", and genres hitherto not regarded as "literary", such as children's writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many canonical literature are now the subjects of scholarly interest.

Writers from Asia and Africa have also been nominated for, and also won, the Booker prize in recent years. The feminist movement produced both feminist fiction and non-fiction and created new interest in women's writing.

It also prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest. Much of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women, canonical literature. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early 20th-century novels in and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation.

In the twentieth century, the Western literary canon started to include black writers not only from black American writersbut also from the wider black diaspora of writers in Britain, France, Latin America, and Africa.

This is largely due to the shift in social and political views during the civil rights movement in the United States. The first global recognition came in when Gwendolyn Brooks was the first black American to win a Pulitzer Prize for Literature. Some early American Black writers were inspired to defy ubiquitous racial prejudice by proving themselves equal to white American authors. As Henry Louis Gates, canonical literature, Jr. African-American writers were also attempting to subvert the literary and power traditions of the United States.

Some scholars assert that writing has traditionally been seen as "something defined by the dominant culture as a white male activity, canonical literature. By borrowing from and incorporating the non-written oral traditions and folk life of the African diasporaAfrican-American literature broke "the mystique of connection between literary authority and patriarchal power.

This view of African-American literature as a tool in the struggle for Black political and cultural liberation has been stated for decades, most famously by W. Du Bois. Since the s the Western literary canon has been expanded to include writers from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.

This is reflected in the Nobel prizes awarded in literature, canonical literature. Yasunari Kawabata — [44] was a Japanese novelist and short story writer whose spare, canonical literature, lyrical, subtly-shaded prose works won him the Nobel Prize for Literature inthe first Japanese author to receive the award, canonical literature.

His works have enjoyed broad international appeal and are canonical literature widely read, canonical literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literaturealong with Tawfiq el-Hakimcanonical literature, to explore themes of existentialism. Many of his works have been made into Egyptian and foreign films. His novels, canonical literature stories, and essays, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theorydeal with political, social, and philosophical issues, including nuclear weaponsnuclear powersocial non-conformismand existentialism.

Guan Moye b. Donald Morrison of the U. InMo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".

Orhan Pamuk b. One of Turkey's most prominent novelists, canonical literature, [51] his work has sold over thirteen million books in sixty-three languages, [52] making him the country's best-selling writer. Born in Istanbul[54] Pamuk is the first Turkish Nobel laureate.

He is also the recipient of numerous other literary awards, canonical literature. Considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century and one of the best in the Spanish languagehe was awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the Nobel Prize in Literature. His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style labeled as magic realismwhich uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations, canonical literature.

Some of his works are set in canonical literature fictional village called Macondo the town mainly inspired by his birthplace Aracatacaand most of them explore the theme of solitude.


Popular Canonical Literature Books


canonical literature


Canonical English Literature show list info Literature every English major should read: some of the highlights up through the modernist era, delving briefly into early postmodernism. The canonical poet of Latin literature were Virgil, Horace and Ovid. Some say that Virgil's Aeneid was the greatest work of Latin literature. Nov 07,  · Canonical definition, pertaining to, established by, or conforming to a canon or canons. See more.