Anthem – Ayn Rand Free Essays - dispongacs.tk

 

ayn rand essays

Ayn Rand (/ aɪ n /; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; February 2 [O.S. January 20] – March 6, ) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she named dispongacs.tked in Russia, she moved to the United States in Alma mater: Petrograd State University (diploma . Sep 22,  · This collection of essays is an excellent complement to Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged. If you find Atlas Shrugged intriguing and want to find out more specifically why it is so appealing, these collection essays will provide a more detailed analysis behind it/5(19). Online shopping from a great selection at Books Store.


Ayn Rand - Wikipedia


Ayn Rand was a major intellectual of the twentieth century. Born in Russia in and educated there, she immigrated to the United States after graduating from university.

Upon becoming proficient in English and establishing herself as a writer of fiction, she became well-known as a passionate advocate of a philosophy she called Objectivism. She wrote both technical and popular works of philosophy, and she presented her philosophy in both fictional and nonfictional forms, ayn rand essays.

Her philosophy has influenced several generations of academics and public intellectuals, and has had widespread popular appeal. Having chronic desires to steal, rape, or kill others is the result of mistaken development and the acquisition of bad habits, just as are chronic laziness or the habit of eating too much junk food.

Rand first made her name as a novelist, publishing We the LivingThe Fountainheadand her magnum opus Atlas Shrugged These philosophical novels embodied themes she subsequently developed in nonfiction form in a series of essays and books written in the s and s.

Born in St. Petersburg, ayn rand essays, Russia, on February 2,Rand was raised in a middle-class family. As a child, she loved storytelling, and at age nine she decided to become a writer, ayn rand essays. In school she showed academic promise, particularly in mathematics. The family moved to the Crimea to recover financially and to escape the harshness of life the revolution brought to St.

They later returned to Petrograd the new name given to St. Petersburg by the Sovietswhere Rand was to attend university. At the University of Petrograd, Rand concentrated her studies on history, with secondary focuses on philosophy and literature.

At university, she was repelled by the dominance of communist ideas and strong-arm tactics that suppressed free inquiry and discussion. As a youth, she had been repelled by the communists' ayn rand essays program, ayn rand essays, and now an adult, she was also more fully aware of the destructive effects that the revolution had had on Russian society more broadly.

Having studied American history and politics at university, ayn rand essays, and having long been an admirer of Western plays, music, ayn rand essays, and movies, she became an admirer of American individualism, vigor, ayn rand essays, and optimism, seeing them as the opposites of Russian collectivism, decay, and gloom.

Not believing, however, that she would be free under the Soviet system to write the kinds of books she wanted to write, ayn rand essays, she resolved to leave Russia and go to America. Rand graduated from the University of Petrograd in She then enrolled at the State Institute for Cinema Arts in order to study screenwriting.

Inshe finally received permission from the Soviet authorities to leave the country in order to visit relatives in the United States, ayn rand essays. Officially, her visit was to be brief; Rand, however, had already decided not to return to the Soviet Union. From New York, she traveled on to Chicago, Illinois, where she spent the next six months living with relatives, learning English, and developing ideas for stories and movies.

She had decided to become a screenwriter, ayn rand essays, and, having received an extension to her visa, she left for Hollywood, California.

She was spotted by Cecil B. She had recognized him as he was passing by in his car, and he had noticed her staring at him. He stopped to ask why she was staring, and Rand explained that ayn rand essays had recently arrived from Russia, that she had long been passionate about Hollywood movies, and that she dreamed of being a screenwriter, ayn rand essays. Rand and O'Connor were married inand they remained married for fifty years until his death in Rand worked for DeMille as a reader of scripts and struggled financially while working on her own writing.

Rand had been working for years on her first significant novel, We the Livingand finished it in However, for several years it was rejected by various publishers, until in it was published by Macmillan in the U. Rand described We the Living as the most autobiographical of her novels, ayn rand essays, its theme being the brutality of life under communist rule in Russia. We the Living did not receive a positive reaction from American reviewers and intellectuals.

While the theme of We the Living was political, the theme of The Fountainhead was ethical, focusing on individualist themes of independence and integrity.

Twelve publishers rejected it before it was published by Bobbs-Merrill in Again not well received by reviewers and intellectuals, the novel nonetheless became a best seller, primarily through word-of-mouth recommendation. The Ayn rand essays made Rand famous as an exponent of individualist ideas, and its continuing to sell well brought her financial security.

Warner Brothers produced a movie version of the novel inayn rand essays, starring Gary Cooper and Patricia Neal, for which Rand wrote the screenplay. InRand began work on her most ambitious novel, Atlas Shrugged. At the time, she was working part-time as a screenwriter for producer Hal Wallis.

Inshe and her husband moved to New York City, where she began to work full-time on Atlas. Published by Random House inayn rand essays, Atlas Shrugged is her most complete expression of her literary and philosophical vision. Dramatized in the form of a mystery about a man who stopped the motor of the world, the plot and characters embody the ayn rand essays and ethical themes first developed in We the Living and The Fountainhead and integrates them into a comprehensive philosophy including metaphysics, epistemology, economics, and the psychology of love and sex.

Her novels had expressed philosophical themes, although Rand considered herself primarily a novelist and only secondarily a philosopher.

The creation of plots and characters and the dramatization of achievements and conflicts were ayn rand essays central purposes in writing fiction, rather than presenting an abstracted and didactic set of philosophical theses. The Fountainhead and Atlas Shruggedhowever, had attracted to Rand many readers who were strongly interested in the philosophical ideas the novels embodied and in pursuing them further.

Among the earliest of those with whom Rand became associated and who later became prominent were psychologist Nathaniel Branden and economist Alan Greenspan, later Chairman of the Federal Reserve. Perhaps the most significant of these books are The Virtue of Selfishnesswhich develops her ethical theory, ayn rand essays, Capitalism: The Unknown Idealdevoted to political and economic theory, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemologya systematic presentation of her theory of concepts, and The Romantic Manifestoa theory of aesthetics.

He was the founder and head of the Nathaniel Branden Institute, the leading Objectivist institution of the s. The rapid growth of the Nathaniel Branden Institute and the Objectivist movement came to a halt in when, for both professional and personal reasons, Rand and Branden parted ways.

Rand continued to write and lecture consistently until she stopped publishing The Ayn Rand Letter in Rand died on March 6,in her New York City ayn rand essays. Traditional ethics has always been suspicious of self-interest, praising acts that are selfless in intent and calling amoral or immoral acts that are motivated by self-interest. A self-interested person, on the traditional view, will not consider the interests of others and so will slight or harm those interests in the pursuit of his own.

Self-interest rightly understood, according to Rand, is to see oneself as an end in oneself. It is up to each of us to determine what values our lives require, how best to achieve those values, and to act to achieve those values. In other words, the moral legitimacy of self-interest implies that individuals have rights to their lives, their liberties, their property, and the pursuit of their own happiness, and that the purpose of government is to protect those rights.

Economically, ayn rand essays individuals free to pursue their own interests implies in turn that only a capitalist or free market economic system is moral: Free individuals will use their time, money, and other property as they see fit, and will interact and trade voluntarily with others to mutual advantage. Fundamentally, the means by which humans live is reason. Our capacity for reason is what enables us to survive and flourish. We are not born knowing what is good for us; that is learned.

Nor are we born knowing how to achieve what is good for us; that too is learned. It is by reason that we learn what is food and what is poison, what animals are useful or dangerous to us, how to make tools, what forms ayn rand essays social organization are fruitful, ayn rand essays, and so on. By the use of reason one takes into ayn rand essays all of the factors one can identify, ayn rand essays, projects the consequences of potential courses of action, and adopts principled policies of action.

The principled policies a person should adopt are called virtues. A virtue is an acquired character trait; it results from identifying a policy as good and committing to acting consistently in terms of that policy. One such virtue is rationality : Having identified the use of reason as fundamentally good, the virtue of rationality is being committed to acting in accordance with reason, ayn rand essays.

Another virtue is productiveness : Given that the values one needs to survive must be produced, the virtue of productiveness is being committed to producing those ayn rand essays. The opposite ayn rand essays of giving to people more or less than they deserve is injustice. It is by living the morality of self-interest that one survives, flourishes, and achieves happiness.

Most traditional ethics take conflicts of interest to be fundamental to the human condition, and take ethics to be the solution: Basic ethical principles are to tell us whose interests should be sacrificed in order to resolve the conflicts.

Taking conflicts of interest to be fundamental almost always stems from one of two beliefs: that human nature is fundamentally destructive or that economic resources are scarce. If human nature is fundamentally destructive, then humans ayn rand essays naturally in conflict with each ayn rand essays. If what individuals naturally want to do to each other is rape, steal, ayn rand essays, and kill, then in order to have society these individual desires need to be sacrificed.

Consequently, a basic principle of ethics will be to urge individuals to suppress their natural desires so that society ayn rand essays exist.

In other words, self-interest is the enemy, and must be sacrificed for others, ayn rand essays. If economic resources are scarce, then there is not enough to go around. Many ethical philosophies begin with this premise. And so, in order to solve the problem of destructive competition the lack of resources leads us to, a basic principle of ethics will be to urge individuals to sacrifice their interests in obtaining more, or even some, so that others may obtain more or some and society can exist peacefully.

In other words, in a situation of scarcity, self-interest is the enemy and must be sacrificed for others. Rand rejects both the scarce resources and destructive human nature premises. Human beings are not born in sin or with destructive desires; nor do they necessarily acquire them in the course of growing to maturity. Nor are resources scarce, according to Rand, in any fundamental way. By the use of reason, humans can discover new resources and how to use existing resources ayn rand essays efficiently, including recycling where appropriate and making productive processes more efficient.

Humans have, for example, ayn rand essays, continually discovered and developed new energy resources, from animals to wood to coal to oil to nuclear fission to solar panels; and there is no end in sight to this process. At any given moment, ayn rand essays, the available resources are a fixed amount, but over time the stock of resources are and have been constantly expanding. Because humans are rational they can produce an ever-expanding number of goods, and so human interests do not fundamentally conflict with each other.

Instead, Rand holds that the exact opposite is true: Since humans can and should be productive, human interests are deeply in harmony with each other. For example, my producing more corn is in harmony with your producing more peas, for by our both being productive and trading with each other we are both better off. It is to your interest that I be successful in producing more corn, ayn rand essays, just as it is to my interest that you be successful in producing more peas.

Conflicts of interest do exist within a narrower scope. For example, in the immediate present available resources are more fixed, and so competition for those resources results, and competition produces winners and losers. Economic competition, however, is a broader form of cooperation, a social way to allocate resources ayn rand essays resorting to physical force and violence.

By competition, resources are allocated efficiently and peacefully, and in the long run more resources are produced. Thus, a competitive economic system is in the self-interest of all of us. Accordingly, Rand argues that her ethic of self-interest is the basis for personal happiness and free and prosperous societies.

All her books were still in print as ofhad sold more than thirty million copies, and continued to sell approximately one million copies each year.

 

Essay Contests | Atlas Shrugged, The Fountainhead, Anthem | Ayn Rand Institute

 

ayn rand essays

 

Online shopping from a great selection at Books Store. Ayn Rand has set her beliefs in an idea she calls objectivism and displays them heavily in Anthem. Her philosophy of objectivism is that a man’s “own happiness [is] the moral purpose of his life” (Ayn Rand, ) and that a man should only think of the whole if he so chooses. Anthem by Ayn Rand is a disturbing book. It is disturbing in the sense that it opens the reader eyes to a world without individuals. A world without the notion of me, my, I, but only with us, we, ours. This world is one of a collectivist society. Collectivism is based on principals of the “common good.